By Hubert and Clara McHugh
The following is an overview of Goebel shakers made in Germany.
A Little History
In 1879 W. Goebel Porzellanfabrik was started to manufacture ceramic objects. In the 1920's the first shakers were produced. At that time there were apprentices and several sculptors but the two master sculptors were Arthur Moeller and Reinhold Unger.
Pre-World War II sets can be identified by the Crown Mark along with the pre-war hole pattern of seven for salt and five for pepper.
The trademark is also known as trademark one (TM 1).
It may be incised (impressed) or just stamped on the bottom. It was used from 1923 to 1949.
Shakers can be identified by a letter prefix or by a number prefix.
The letter prefixes were used up until 1970. Examples of letter prefixes are B, D, G, H, K and I. M28 and M41 are examples of multipiece sets with the M prefix. Pairs with the P prefix were used up to 1970.
The number prefix was created in the early 1970's to supercede the letter prefix.
70 is one of the prefixes used to designate three pieces that include salt and pepper shakers when they are on a tray or in a basket. Only a few 70 numbers were issued as they were soon superceded by the 77 prefix.
The prefix 71 designates egg cups and also two shakers on a tray or in a basket. It was soon superceded by the 78 prefix.
Early Shaker Examples from the 1920's
Examples of Shakers by Arthur Moeller
Examples of Shakers by Reinhold Unger
Additional Early Shakers from the 1920's
Examples from the 1930's
World War II Period
During WWII Goebel had to supply dishes for the German Army and were not allowed to make frivolous items. They also produced some very scarce miniature ceramic tanks that were used by the German generals while planning campaigns on "war maps".
No shakers were manufactured between 1939 and the end of the war.
After World War II
Arthur Moeller and Reinhold Unger survived the war and went on to sculpt shakers into the 50's. The 40's were the end of the apprentice systems. Many shakers were produced by "up and coming" sculptors but attributed to Arthur and Reinhold while actually made under their tutelage.
In 1945 Goebel started to get back into shaker production.
Examples from the 1940's
Girls with Odd Hats
The following series of girls with odd hats was created by Reinhold Unger in 1945. It was was an early attempt to get Goebel back into production in peacetime.
The first pieces were made with the pre-war hole pattern of seven for the salt and five for the pepper. Those early shakers were the last series to use the pre-war hole pattern. Soon the hole patterns were switched to the typical post-war pattern of three holes for the salt and two holes for the pepper.
These pieces also have unusual coloring as materials were scarce right after WWII. Soon the colors got better. Note, the color of the "fruit hats" were not accurate due to the scarcity of quality materials.
Examples from the 1950's
People and ...
Examples from the 1960's
Examples from the 1970's and early 1980's
For much more Goebel shaker information, read "Goebel Salt & Pepper Shakers" by Novelty Salt & Pepper Shakers Club members Hubert and Clara McHugh. You can get it direct from the authors (firstname.lastname@example.org) and they will sign the book.